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The History of Tungsten Carbide Wear Parts

Time : 2021-08-18 Hits : 19

Due to China's active and stable macroeconomic policies, the national economy has grown rapidly, and the demand for cemented carbide has also grown rapidly. While the demand for cemented carbide is increasing, the output is also increasing, from 14,500 tons in 2006 to 24,500 tons in 2011, with a compound annual growth rate of 10.60%.

Carbide has high hardness, strength, wear resistance and corrosion resistance, known as "industrial teeth", used to manufacture cutting tools, cutting tools, drilling tools and wear-resistant parts, widely used in military, aerospace , machining, metallurgy, oil drilling, mining tools, electronic communications, construction and other fields, with the development of downstream industries, the market demand for cemented carbide continues to increase. And in the future, the manufacture of high-tech weapons and equipment, the advancement of cutting-edge science and technology, and the rapid development of nuclear energy will greatly increase the demand for high-tech and high-quality and stable carbide products. According to the analysis of Qianzhan.com, from the "2013-2017 China Cemented Carbide Industry Market Prospect and Investment Strategic Planning Analysis Report", it is expected that by 2015, the output of my country's cemented carbide will reach 30,000 tons, and the total industrial output value will reach about 23 billion yuan. .

The "KRUZ" cemented carbide machine-clamping tool introduced by YesTool of South Korea adopts a mixed-type high-cobalt (13%) ultra-fine grained matrix with a hard phase grain size of 0.2+0.5+0.8 μm, respectively. The strength and hardness of the base material have been greatly improved, with the geometry and clamping method of the machine-clamped insert that is close to the strength of the integral drill bit, as well as the original drill tip design and high-performance titanium nitride (TiN) and aluminum nitride Titanium (TiAlN) nano-physical coating (PVD) is not only suitable for machining soft to hard workpieces, but even for workpieces with special materials that are extremely difficult to machine, it can reflect excellent cutting performance.

The new steel turning grades GC4225 and GC4235 from Sandvik Coromant, Sweden, use ultra-fine-grained graded cemented carbide substrates, with titanium nitride carbide medium temperature chemical coating (MT-CVD) and fine-grained Columnar a-Al2O3 chemical coating, the surface adopts post-treatment process to eliminate surface stress, that is, the tensile stress surface layer (TiN) of the CVD coating on the rake face is removed by shot peening, so that the tensile stress of the exposed surface Al2O3 is reduced by 40% , the stress of the inner coating is reduced by 20%, which significantly improves the chipping resistance and spalling resistance of the blade, improves the integrity and reliability of the blade, and also improves the surface finish of the coating, reducing the blade and chip. adhesion between. GC4225 can cover 80% of the application fields from roughing to finishing. Compared with the general P25 insert, the tool life can be increased by 60%, and the production efficiency can be increased by 33%. It is the first choice for steel processing. Zhuzhou Diamond Cutting Tool Co., Ltd. launched the YBD series black diamond grades for cast iron processing two years ago, and the newly launched second-generation black diamond series grades for steel processing - YBC152 and YBC252 also use cobalt-rich surfaces. The gradient cemented carbide base material, with thick layer of fibrous TiCN and fine-grained Al2O3 CVD coating, has strong plastic deformation resistance and edge strength, especially suitable for high-speed machining of steel. Under the same cutting conditions, the new generation of black diamond grade inserts can increase the cutting speed by more than 25%; under the same cutting speed, the tool life can be increased by more than 30%. New grades of surface cobalt-rich gradient cemented carbide base materials were also launched at this exhibition: general grade KU30T from Kennametal Company of the United States, stainless steel grade VP5535 from Valenite Company, and improved Al2O3MT suitable for high-speed machining from ISCAR Company of Israel -CVD composite coating "a-TEC" series (such as: IC9150, IC9250, IC9350) grades, etc.

Adding a small amount of elements to cemented carbide can strengthen the hard phase and binder phase of the material, purify the grain boundaries and significantly improve the flexural strength and impact toughness of the material. The ACE series coating grades (AC700G, AC2000, AC3000) launched by Sumitomo Electric Carbide Co., Ltd. use zirconium (Zr)-added cemented carbide base material, which greatly improves the red hardness of the new grade base material. The new HG series coating grades (HG8010, HG8025) newly launched by Hitachi Tool Technology Co., Ltd. adopt the new CVD coating technology of the so-called "triple zirconium effect". The zirconium (Zr) element is added to improve the high temperature deformation resistance of the substrate; the "second heavy zirconium effect" is to replace the usual MT-TiCN coating with a fine-grained columnar zirconium (Zr) coating, thereby improving the The oxidation resistance of the coating; the "third zirconium effect" is a white zirconium (Zr) coating on the coating surface to improve the lubricity, heat resistance and spalling resistance of the tool surface. The new coated grade inserts have good heat resistance and are especially suitable for high-efficiency machining. Compared with traditional inserts, the machining efficiency can be increased by 150% and the machining cost can be reduced by 20-30%.

Ultrafine grained cemented carbides are increasingly used. In addition to the new grades of the above-mentioned companies that use ultra-fine grained cemented carbide substrates, Kennametal's new grades KC5525 and KC5510 also use grain-refined high-cobalt cemented carbide substrates with a cobalt content of 10%. The super-fine grained cemented carbide substrate is matched with TiAlNPVD coating with high aluminum content, so that the tool has high edge toughness during interrupted cutting, and also has strong thermal deformation resistance. The "AL-TEC" coating series (such as: IC900, IC903, IC908, IC910, etc.) for solid carbide end mills launched by ISCAR also use ultra-fine grained carbide substrates, with The high aluminum content TiAlN (PVD) coating increases the tool life by 150% compared with the original IC903 grade when milling hardened steel with a hardness of 60-62HRC. Valenite's VP1595 grade for high-speed turning of cast iron is also coated with 18μm thick TiCN/Al2O3/TiC coating on the ultra-fine grained cemented carbide substrate by MT-CVD, and the flank face is coated with a A layer of gray TiC is used to facilitate the observation of the wear of the cutting edge and the index of the blade. When rough machining ductile iron, the processing efficiency of this grade is 50% higher than that of other K05~K10 grades.

It can be seen from the above new grades that with the improvement and improvement of the performance of the base material, the tool coating technology has achieved more rapid development. Medium temperature chemical coating, columnar a-Al2O3 chemical coating, high-performance physical coating, new Atomic coating, nanostructure coating, yellow aluminum oxide chemical coating, white zirconium coating, high aluminum content TiAlN coating, TiSiN coating, CrSiN coating, AlCrSiN coating, TiBON coating and many other new coatings With the trend of diversification and serialization, new grades of cemented carbide materials emerge in an endless stream, which greatly improves the cutting performance of cemented carbide tools.

Following the introduction of three high-performance ISO-P cemented carbide grades, TP1000, TP2000, and TP3000 two years ago, Sweden's Seco (SECO) has newly launched the TP2500 general-purpose ISO-P cemented carbide grade known as the "new industry standard". A new grade of hard alloy coating, which is a new grade of hard alloy coating formed by the coating technology called DurAtomic on Seco's new generation Triple-Zero base material. The a-Al2O3 of the DurAtomic coating is grown from atoms, and the DurAtomic coating has higher wear resistance and toughness than the a-Al2O3 produced by the usual CVD coating. TP2500 is designed as the first choice grade for ordinary steel turning (ISOP15~P30), and can also be used as a supplementary grade for ISOM20 and ISOK30. According to Seco's technical staff, the new TP2500 inserts can improve machining efficiency by more than 50% and tool life by more than 300%.

LMT-BOEHLERIT, a German metal processing technology group, has developed a "yellow alumina composite coating" technology using medium-temperature chemical coating technology. Combined with the company's newly developed Durotec tooth transition layer technology, the yellow The aluminum oxide coating and the transition layer have excellent adhesion and good heat dissipation at the same time, and Steeltec LC215K and LC225K series blade grades have been introduced. Steeltec LC215K can achieve a cutting speed of more than 300m/min when cutting steel, and the blade life is 30% longer than other existing blades. The Steeltec LC225K further improves the toughness of the blade on the basis of the LC215K, so that the service life of the blade is extended by 30% on the original basis.

Nanostructure coating (Nanocoating) technology is a new coating technology developed rapidly. The grain size of the coating material is generally below 100nm, which has good cutting performance. At this exhibition, many domestic and foreign companies have launched new grades of nanostructured coatings. The super ZX coating grades (ACP200, ACP300, ACK300 and AC530U) launched by Sumitomo Electric Hardmetal Co., Ltd. of Japan use ultra-thin TiAlN and AlCrN nano-scale coatings with a total number of 1000 overlapping layers. The thickness of the coating is about 10 nanometers, which greatly improves the hardness and oxidation resistance of the coating surface. Compared with the traditional TiAlN coating, the hardness of the super ZX coating is increased by 40%, and the starting oxidation temperature is also increased by 200 °C, thereby improving the machining efficiency of the tool by 1.5 times; under the same cutting conditions, the tool life is increased by 2 times. Japan's Hitachi Co., Ltd. also introduced new grades of nano-structured coatings. The company's new nano-coating ATH and ACS series grades have higher hardness and oxidation resistance than the usual TiAlN (PVD) coating grades. , its oxidation resistance temperature reaches 1100 ℃, and its microhardness reaches 3600HV. It can be applied to high-speed dry cutting from pre-hardened steel to hardened steel. The new grades of nanostructured nc-TiAlN coating (YBG102, YBG202, YBG302 and YBG203) newly launched by Zhuzhou Diamond Cutting Tool Co., Ltd. are coated with 2-4 μm nano-TiAlN on the surface of ultra-fine grained cemented carbide substrates. The grades cover the turning and milling of most materials such as steel, stainless steel, cast iron, heat-resistant alloys, superalloys, titanium alloys, and have a wide range of adaptability.

In the coating, the grain refinement technology is used to improve the surface finish of the coating and make the surface of the coating smooth, so as to improve the anti-friction and anti-sticking ability of the coating tool, which is also a direction of the development of coating technology. The UC6110 super-coated cemented carbide grade, a patented technology for high-efficiency processing of steel launched by Japan's Mitsubishi Materials Corporation The nanostructured CVD coating has extremely high toughness and super wear resistance, and the outer surface is a layer of yellow special Ti metal compound, which makes the coating surface smooth. Ultra-smooth black coating on the flank to ensure tool wear stability. The super FF coating grades (AC410K, AC610M, AC630M, ACP100, ACK200) newly launched by Sumitomo Electric Carbide Co., Ltd. are coated with ultra-fine grain TiCN on the special cemented carbide substrate, which improves the coating performance. The bonding force with the substrate, and then coating the ultra-fine and ultra-smoothed FF aluminum base film on it, the surface hardness is increased by 30%, and the surface roughness is reduced by 50%. Compared with the usual material, it can improve the processing efficiency. 1.5 times, and the tool life is increased by more than 2 times.